Track Categories

The track category is the heading under which your abstract will be reviewed and later published in the conference printed matters if accepted. During the submission process, you will be asked to select one track category for your abstract.

Bacteria are prokaryotic microorganism which survive on all living organism. Bacteria has different shapes and structures and so the diversity of bacteria is huge. These bacteria are classified based on their cell structure, bacterial metabolism. Molecular systematic is one of the way of classification of bacteria using genetic engineering. Bacteria are classified as Gram positive, Gram negative and miscellaneous bacteria. Bacterial classification is also known as Bacterial taxonomy which includes phylogenetic tree classification.

  • Track 1-1Bacterial Taxonomy
  • Track 1-2Phylogenetic Tree
  • Track 1-3Eukaryotic Bacteria
  • Track 1-4Prokaryotic Bacteria
  • Track 1-5Bacterial Morphology
  • Track 1-6Flagellar Motility in Bacteria
  • Track 1-7Bioinformatic Tools for Bacterial Classification
  • Track 1-8Gram Positive Bacteria
  • Track 1-9Gram Negative Bacteria
  • Track 1-10Miscellaneous Bacteria
  • Track 1-11Pathogenic Bacteria

Phenotypic characters include the characters and property of cells, behaviors of the biological system. The phenotypic assay is accomplished in 96 well Petri plates.the study of phenotypic characters helps one to study the cell transformation, microscopic and macroscopic morphology. Using the phenotypic characters bacterial identification and microbial ecology are done.microbial metabolomics is integrated component of biology. Recent advancements in metabolomics are the analysis of metabolome. The phenotypic classification system of gram stain bacteria includes both gram-negative and gram-positive bacteria.some factors influencing phenotypic characters include changing environment, radiation, toxins, mutagens, bacteriophages etc. Some phenotypic changes include antigenic variations, competence in Bacillus subtilis, endospore in Bacillus subtilis, colicin production in E.coli, the persistence of antibiotic-resistant Staphylococcus and phenotypes due to mutation.Genotypic characters have application in bacterial identification and classification by genotypic methods which involve genetic materials DNA and RNA. Species-specific hybridization  is a technique which involves DNA-DNA  hybridization and thermal stability hybrids are used in differentiating species.some of the genotypic methods include amplified ribosomal DNA restriction analysis,16s and 23s rDNA sequencing, strain-specific typing, pulse field gel electrophoresis, randomly amplified polymorphic DNA assay,amplified fragment length polymorphism, ribotyping, Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis and finally protein-based methods.

 

  • Track 2-1Phenotypic Analysis
  • Track 2-2Cellular phenotype
  • Track 2-3Phenotypic Microarray
  • Track 2-4Metabolomics
  • Track 2-5Characteristics of Cell
  • Track 2-6Cell Property
  • Track 2-7Molecular Phenotype
  • Track 2-8Cell Growth Phenotype
  • Track 2-9Suppressor Mutation
  • Track 2-10Microscopic and Macroscopic Morphology
  • Track 2-11Genetic Similarities
  • Track 2-12Comparison of Gene
  • Track 2-13Homologous
  • Track 2-14Rt-Pcr, Rapd-Pcr
  • Track 2-15Nucleic Acid Probes
  • Track 2-16Plasmid Finger Printing
  • Track 2-17Genomic Sequence
  • Track 2-18Mendelian Inheritance

bacterial metabolism in which the bacteria gets its nutrients and energy to survive. These bacteria require certain bio-elements which are tabulated below

ELEMENTS

FUNCTION IN METABOLISM

C, O, N, H

Main constitutes of cellular material

sulfur

Constitute of cysteine, methionine, thiamine, pyrophosphate, coenzyme-a, and biotin

Potassium

Constitute of nucleic acids, phospholipids, and nucleotides

phosphorous

Principle inorganic cation in the cell, cofactor of some enzymes

Magnesium

Cofactor of many enzymes, present in many cell walls, membranes, ribosome and phosphate esters

Calcium

Present in exoenzymes and cell walls. Ca-dipicolinate is an important component of endospores

Iron

Present in cytochromes, ferredoxins and other iron-sulfur proteins. Cofactor of enzymes

Sodium

Involved in various transport processes

chlorine

Important inorganic anion in the cell

 

  • Track 3-1Anabolism and Catabolism
  • Track 3-2Autotroph
  • Track 3-3Heterotroph
  • Track 3-4Aerobic and Anaerobic Respiration
  • Track 3-5Fermentation
  • Track 3-6Photosynthesis
  • Track 3-7Kerbcycle and Electron Transport Chain
  • Track 3-8Biogeochemical Cycles
  • Track 3-9Infection in Specific Tissue

Protozoan parasites are infectious for human beings which are divided into four types based on their flagellar movement, include sporozoa, ciliophoran, mastigophore, Sarcodina. These parasites have the ability called Programmed Cell Death (PCD) for example, the unicellular protozoan parasite Leishmania undergoes PCD. These protozoan parasites affect the innate immune system of the host.   From the from the parasitic protozoa, Glycosylphosphatidylinositol(GPI) anchors and glycoinositolphospholipids (GIPLS) shows an effect on the innate immune system.

  • Track 4-1Individual Cells
  • Track 4-2Specialized Sub-cellular Features
  • Track 4-3Cytoskeletal Features
  • Track 4-4Life Cycle
  • Track 4-5Amoebae, Flagellates, Ciliates, Sporozoa

Bacteria are of diverse kinds which include both harmful and harmless bacteria. Pathogenic bacteria are the bacteria which causes infectious diseases in humans. These pathogenic bacteria can be identified by physiochemical instrumental techniques and also biosensors are used for the identification of pathogenic bacteria. These bacteria have the ability to degrade the antibacterial peptides LL-37 which was analyzed by the mass spectrometry. These pathogens live in the host by obtaining the iron contain from the host and cause infection in the human digestive tract & also in specific tissues of the body.

  • Track 5-1Human digestive system
  • Track 5-2Mycobacterium Tuberculosis
  • Track 5-3Pneumonia
  • Track 5-4Infant Mortality
  • Track 5-5Koch’s Postulates

Bacterial infection is caused by a strain of bacteria either on the body or inside the human body. The strain of bacteria can be gram negative or gram positive and the infection is identified by symptoms which include a cough, headache, sinus infection. Antibiotics are medicines which are used to treat the bacterial infection and not the viruses. Some of the commonly used antibiotics for treating bacterial infection include amoxicillin, clindamycin, ciprofloxacin etc. In the treatment of respiratory tract infection, the unnecessary use of an antibiotic can be reduced by the procalcitonin testing.

  • Track 6-1Antibiotics
  • Track 6-2Type of Bacteria
  • Track 6-3Cleaning Validation
  • Track 6-4Differential Diagnosis
  • Track 6-5Laboratory Identification
  • Track 6-6Blood And Urine Samples
  • Track 6-7Cough ,Headache, Fatigue and Sinusitis

 skin infection which includes cellulitis is a bacterial infection which is painful and also causes redness. Mostly it affects the legs and also other parts of the body. Hair follicles are also infected which shows redness and swollen bumps called folliculitis.   Bacteria are also the cause of urinary tract infection, respiratory tract infection, bacterial meningitis and many more. Gram-negative bacteria are becoming multi-drug resistant and antibiotics are becoming less useful because of the virulence of the bacteria.

  • Track 7-1Skin Infection
  • Track 7-2Respiratory Infection
  • Track 7-3Urinary Tract Infection
  • Track 7-4Bacterial Meningitis
  • Track 7-5Otitis Media
  • Track 7-6Antibiotic Resistant Infection

In microbial genomics high-quality sequence, data can be generated by (HTS) high throughput sequencing. High throughput sequencing enables one to find and characterize the bio-relatedness in case of bioterrorism and biocrimes. Different types of microorganism are present in human beings on their skin tissues, gut and mouth region. The microbiome is nothing but the combined genetic material on the body and so using the microbial forensic analysis sequence comparison is done based on the bacterial fingerprints thus using the human fingerprint identification as the tool in the field of microbial forensics.

  • Track 8-116s r RNA gene
  • Track 8-2Microbiome
  • Track 8-3Pyro Sequencing
  • Track 8-4Bacterial Fingerprints
  • Track 8-5DNA of Soil Bacteria
  • Track 8-6Human DNA

 

Nowadays the infection causing bacteria has become the antibiotic-resistant and multidrug resistant. The number of new antibiotic discovery has reduced drastically for the past decade. There is no new drug discovery for bacterial infection in recent years. One of the common infection found in children is acute otitis infection in which children are provided with antibiotics. Some of the commonly used antibiotics include Amoxil which is the common antibiotic given for children in case of urinary tract infection, ear infection, sinus infection. Zithromax which is also known as azithromycin is commonly used for patients suffering from the respiratory infection caused by bacteria.

  • Track 9-1Multi Drug Resistance
  • Track 9-2Linezolid
  • Track 9-3Fidaxomicin
  • Track 9-4Ceftaroline
  • Track 9-5Doripenem
  • Track 9-6Virulence Factor
  • Track 9-7Improved Potency

To study about a bacteria, the instrumental analysis is done.  Using modern instrumental techniques the molecular level of bacteria is analyzed. The (FTIR) Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy technique is used to analyze the compositional analysis of bacterial cells. Also, the instrumental analysis of bacterial cells is done by vibrational and emission Mossbauer spectroscopic techniques. Other spectrometry techniques include matrix-assisted laser desorption(MALDI) time of flight mass spectroscopy is used to detect the bacterial protein and so this can be a better tool for the identification of bacteria.

  • Track 10-1Vibrational Spectroscopy
  • Track 10-2Strains sp7 and sp45
  • Track 10-3Emission Mossbauer Spectroscopy
  • Track 10-4 FT Raman Spectroscopy

There are Clinical bacteriology laboratories which are useful for the health care provider in diagnosing the infectious diseases.  In the samples related to clinical bacteriology are tested by spread method in which the bacterial cell from specimen forms a colony after keeping it in an incubator. The other method is drop method where the Petri plate is placed directly in the dry incubator. Another method is Spiral plater method which is the most advanced method because the colony counting is more accurate. The pathogens named Streptococcus pneumoniae and Haemophilus influenzae are bacteria infects by causing (AOM) acute otitis media. And these pathogens are resisted by antimicrobial therapy. But there is also a presence of pathogens which are antimicrobial resistant called (PRSP) Penicillin-resistant Streptococcus pneumoniae.

  • Track 11-1Laboratory Automation
  • Track 11-2Clinical Specimens
  • Track 11-3Growth Medium
  • Track 11-4Antimicrobial Susceptibility Test
  • Track 11-5Medical Microbiology
  • Track 11-6Microbiological cultures

All living organism contains genetic material DNA. The genome terminology includes circular chromosome, linear chromosome, plasmid, megaplasmid. Bacterial genomics enables genome sequencing which provides the blueprint for microbial components. Genome sequencing reveals drug resistance profiles, a synthetic capability of bacteria and so this information can be used in the preparation of vaccines and immunoprophylactic interventions. Metagenomic analysis is done by shotgun sequencing in which thousands of random DNA sequencing is done using computer algorithm and also DNA microarray technique is also used in bacterial genomics.

  • Track 12-1Metagenomics
  • Track 12-2Transcriptomic Data
  • Track 12-3Uroputhogenesis
  • Track 12-4Genome Analysis
  • Track 12-5High Throughout Sequencing(Hts Technology)
  • Track 12-6Whole Genome Sequencing(Wgs)

The study of proteomics has increased the understanding of the bacteria. Proteomics gives the information about the mechanism of the bacterial virulence and its interaction with the human cells. The interaction between the bacteria and antibiotic can be studied using proteomics. Advancements and improvement in the mass spectroscopy techniques have paved the way for bacterial proteomics. In research area of the biomedical field, mass spectroscopy based proteomics is encouraging and innovative.

  • Track 13-1Physiological Response
  • Track 13-2Antibacterial Drug Delivery
  • Track 13-3Mass Spectroscopy
  • Track 13-4Gel Electrophoresis

Bacteria which are genetically modified are called the genetically engineered organism. these genetically modified bacteria are useful in the production of human proteins. Some of the transgenic products which are synthesized by bacteria include insulin, tissue plasminogen activator, Ice-minus bacteria, interferon and many more. Non-pathogenic bacteria which are genetically modified are used to target tumors and to have anti-tumor effects on the patients. other than pharmaceutical use these bacteria are genetically modified bacteria are used in land fields and soils to increase the crop growth which is pest resistant.

  • Track 14-1Less Complex Genetics
  • Track 14-2Human Proteins and Therapeutic Proteins
  • Track 14-3Clotting Factor-Hamster Cell Lines
  • Track 14-4Ice Minus Bacteria, Tissue Plasminogen
  • Track 14-5Anti Tumour Effect-Anaerobic Bacteria
  • Track 14-6Co-factor Regeneration
  • Track 14-7BioTransformation

Vaccines are nothing but the antigenic compounds which produce immunity to a disease. T-cells receptor peptide vaccines are shown to have cytokine production and improve cell-mediated immunity.some bacteria are genetically modified to be a bacterial vaccine.live vaccines have the advantage of cell-mediated and antibody-mediated immunity and so can easily prevent infection. These bacterial live vaccines are easy to produce and are cheap in cost. A gram-positive bacteria called Clostridium difficle is one of the major cause of the infection which can be treated by an active vaccine and various immunotherapeutic strategies.

  • Track 15-1Louis Pasteur
  • Track 15-2Genomics and Proteomics in Vaccine Design
  • Track 15-3Corynebacterium Diptheriae
  • Track 15-4Modern Molecular Biology
  • Track 15-5Recombinant DNA Technology
  • Track 15-6T-cells
  • Track 15-7Host Immune System
  • Track 15-8Active and Passive Vaccination
  • Track 15-9Prophylactic Bacterial Vaccine
  • Track 15-10Types of Vaccine
  • Track 15-11Immunogen
  • Track 15-12Animal Model- Vaccine Testing

Ayurvedic treatments have a good reputation because of the fewer side effects caused by them. And also these are naturally available products and so it is not synthetically made which leads to no carcinogens in the ayurvedic products. The ayurvedic products from the plants are rich in a wide variety of secondary metabolites which include flavonoids, tannins, alkaloids. These compounds are found to antimicrobial in nature. In Ayurveda, many herbal plants are used in treating bacterial infection and infectious diseases. Solvents extracts from certain herbal include Ajmodadi churna, Mahasudarshan churna, Triphala churna is found to have antibacterial properties against some bacterial pathogens include Staphylococcus aureus, Enterobacter aerogens, etc.

  • Track 16-1Aragwadhadi Kashayam-Purging cassia
  • Track 16-2Panchaitiktam Kashayam
  • Track 16-3Triphala Powder
  • Track 16-4Licorice
  • Track 16-5Myrrh Gym Resin

There are many types of bacteria have been in use since the discovery of the very first antibiotic penicillin. These antibiotics are used for treating many types of infection caused by bacteria. But some types of bacteria are multidrug resistance and so the effect of antibiotics has decreased. So the alternatives have come into existence which includes phage therapy. Phages are nothing but the set of viruses that infects the bacteria. These bacteriophages have a certain mode of action which are the lytic module and lysogenic module. And other alternative includes killing factor. These factors are released by the bacteria itself which kills the sibling bacteria in case of starvation. Another alternative is called quorum quenching. the main advantage of using this quorum sensing inhibitor is that it inhibits the growth of drug-resistant bacteria.

  • Track 17-1Phages
  • Track 17-2Lytic Module
  • Track 17-3Lysogenic Module
  • Track 17-4Killing Factors
  • Track 17-5Quorum Quenching
  • Track 17-6Antivirulence Therapy
  • Track 17-7Probiotics

The market size of antibiotic is enormous and huge. It is expected to reach USD 57.0 billion dollars by the year 2024. Different diseases in human are increasing day by day and so the production of medicines are increasing in high proportion thus leading to the high market size of the antibiotics. The recent development of antibiotic market which includes antibiotics against multi-drug resistant bacteria is also one of the reasons for the growth in the market share of antibiotic. Nowadays both broad-spectrum antibiotics and wide spectrum antibiotics have increased in the market size.

  • Track 18-1USD 57.0 Billion By 2024
  • Track 18-2Global Antibiotic Market
  • Track 18-3Product Development
  • Track 18-4Clinical Trials
  • Track 18-5FDA &WHO

Entrepreneurs have a large scope in increasing their revenue by investing in the newly emerging genetically modified bacteria. The researches in the drug development and medicines can be a good field for the investment. Not only medicines but also entrepreneurs have a good scope in investing laboratories and pharmaceutical companies. The growing technologies in the field of biotechnology is one of the major sectors for the investment in the growth of a business. Antibiotic industry in which entrepreneurs can invest as it has evergreen scope in the medical field.

  • Track 19-1Antibiotic Medicines And Researches
  • Track 19-2Laboratory Investment
  • Track 19-3Investment In Genetically Engineered Bacteria
  • Track 19-4Investment In Microbiological Industries

The study of plant Bacteriology has led to the noval improvements and advancements in the feild of biotechnology, agriculture, and also benefiting the drug discoveries from plants. UV Spectrometer is used to measure the various biochemical materials of the plants and microbes based on the absorbance  at a particular wavelength. ultracentrifuge is done to seperate the biological components of bacterial cells and also plant tissue seperation. The persence of bacteria can be found by using test which include  ooze test, milky water test and string test.

  • Track 20-1Plant Microbes
  • Track 20-2Laboratory Techniques
  • Track 20-3Plant Pathogenic Bacteria
  • Track 20-4Diseased Plants