Scientific Program

Day 1 :

Keynote Forum

Gopal Nath

Banaras Hindu University, India

Keynote: Bacteriophage therapy of acute and chronic infections

Time : 10:00-10:40 AM

Biography:

Gopal Nath, as a pioneer of Bacteriophage Therapy research in India, he has demonstrated that MDR/PDR bacteria can be treated by this alternative approach. He has conducted human trials on role of bacteriophages in wound healing. He has organized the “International Conference on Bacteriophages in River Ganga” and also founded the “Bacteriophage Society of India”. For the first time, he and his collaborators at NKI, Netherland established that Salmonella Typhi infection induces malignant transformations. He has published articles in journals like Lancet, Cell and Journal of Bacteriology. He had been at the editorial board of World J Gastroenterology. He has been one of the Judges of prestigious International King Faisal award in 2015. His efforts in bacteriophage therapy has led to visible transformation in the treatment of infectious diseases.

 

Abstract:

Emergence of pathogenic bacteria resistant to often all the currently available antimicrobial agents has become a critical problem in modern clinical practice, particularly because of the concomitant increase in immunosuppressed patients. The concern that humankind is re-entering the "pre-antibiotics" era has become very real and the development of alternative anti-bacterial modalities has become one of the highest priorities of modern medicine and biotechnology.  Despite intensive work by drug companies, no new class of antibiotics has been found in the last 20 years. Other approaches to deal resistant bacteria are also being sought for with increasing fervor. One of these might be using bacteriophages against pathogens i.e., harnessing the potential of specific kind of viruses that attack only specific bacterial pathogen to kill them. After the use of antibiotics for about half century, we have to believe that “we cannot win the war against bacteria,” But with phages, “at least we can try to shift the ecological balance in our favor”. We have carried out experiments to treat the acute as well as chronic infections. In acute infection models Pseudomonas aeruginosa and in Acinetobacter baumannii  septicaemia have been evaluated in animals. Further, we have successfully treated acute as well as chronic osteomyelitis caused by methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) in rabbit model, which is extremely difficult to cure. We have demonstrated the effective in vivo use of phages on biofilm formed on metallic implants in rabbit model. We have looked into the role of bacteriophage therapy in the healing of non-healing wound of 6 week to > 5 years duration. After washing the surface with sterile saline, swabs were taken for the bacterial isolation. The bacteriophages were isolated against the different bacterial isolates from the environmental sources. We got promising results when follow-up was done for > 6 months.

 

  • Bacteriology | Infectious Diseases | Plant Bacteriology | Bacterial pathogenesis
Speaker
Biography:

Ogbeba Jeremiah is a lecturer with Federal Polytechnic Bauchi, Nigeria. He holds an MSc in Medical microbiology from Abubakar Tafawa Balewa university Bauchi, Nigeria. He has interest in antimicrobial properties of plants against pathogenic bacteria and looks forward to study further in such fields as well as oral microbiology.

 

Abstract:

Finger millet in northern Nigeria was subjected to phytochemical screening using standard procedures. The agar well method was used to test the antibacterial activities of methanolic and aqeous (combined) extracts of the grain on Salmonella typhi, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus aureus. The result of the antimicrobial activity as indicated by zone of inhibition ranged from 1-8mm for different extract concentrations. The finger millet extract showed zones of inhibition of 8mm against Pseudomonas aeruginosa at a concentration of 100mg/ml, 3mm at 50mg/ml and 2mm at 25mg/ml concentrations. The inhibition zones of Escherichia coli at extract concentrations of 100mg/ml,50mg/ml,25mg/ml, 12.25mg/ml and 6.125mg/ml were 4mm, 3mm, 3mm, 6mm and 1mm respectively, and for Staphylococcus aureus were 5mm,2mm, 1mm at 100mg/ml, 50mg/ml and 12.25mg/ml respectively. The zones of inhibition against all the tested isolates at 100mg/ml was not significantly different from those of 50mg/ml (p=0.160), 25mg/ml (p=0.067) and 12.5mg/ml (p=0.160), but significantly higher than 6.125mg/ml (p=0.05). The results further showed that E. coli, S. aureus and P. aeruginosa did not differ significantly in their susceptibility to the varying concentrations of the plant extract (p=0.229). Although S. aureus and S. typhi also did not differ significantly in their susceptibility to the varying concentrations of the extract (p=0.157), but susceptibility by S. typhi was significantly lower than those of E. coli (p=0.007) and P. aeruginosa (p=0.015). The qualitative phytochemical analysis indicated the presence tannin/phenol, flavonoids, alkaloid, saponin, glycosides, terpenoid and steroids in finger millet. The proximate analysis revealed the moisture (9.98%), ash (2.81%), protein (1.45%), fat (1.67%), carbohydrate (78.08%) and energy contents (357.18kcal). The quantitative phytochemical revealed total phenolic content (6.57 mg/100g) and total flavonoid content (0.224 mg/100g). The overall results indicate that finger millet are potent antimicrobial preparations at least invitro and also have high nutritional value.

Speaker
Biography:

Smeet Jyoti Kalita currently working as a Medical Superintendent at Dr. B. R. Ambedkar Hospital, Guwahati, Assam, India, he is an Indian Medical Microbiologist & Researcher. He did his Medical Graduation from Sikkim Manipal University, Sikkim, India followed by his Post Graduation in Medical Microbiology from the prestigious Rajiv Gandhi University of Health Sciences, Bangalore, Karnataka, India. He also holds a MBA degree in Healthcare Management & a fellowship in Diabetes.

He has presented an Oral Presentation on TB & Gene X-pert in the MICROCON, 2017 at Bellary, Karnataka and conducted a study for the same at Vydehi Institute of Medical Sciences, Bangalore, Karnataka on Tuberculosis & its diagnosis.

 

Abstract:

INTRODUCTION:

Tuberculosis is a transmissible infection caused by mycobacterium tuberculosis (mtb) & is still one of the biggest challenges for developing countries.

India bears the highest tb burden in the world. India accounts for 2.2 million cases of tb annually of the 9 million cases reported globally.

Emergence of drug resistance is a major hurdle in tb control. The common reasons for the development of drug resistance include incorrect prescription, irregular supply of drugs, non compliance of treatment, and lack of follow up. Multidrug resistant tb (mdr-tb) is more difficult to treat. The rate of mdr tb in india is 2.1%.

There are a number of tests available for the diagnosis of tuberculosis but conventional microscopy has low sensitivity. Culture, although the gold standard, takes longer time for positivity. Nucleic acid amplification techniques due to its rapidity & sensitivity help in early diagnosis and management of tuberculosis and thereby curtails the transmission of the disease.

RESULTS:

In our study, 66(70.21%) were males & 28(29.79%) were females.

Out of total 94 samples, 58 samples were bal fluid (61.70%), sputum sample of 26 (27.66%), followed by others like pleural fluid, etc of 12(12.77%) in number.

 of the 94 mtb suspected samples, 25 samples came out to be mtb positive by gene expert; 8 were positive by conventional zn staining microscopy, 9 were positive with fluorescent microscopy (auramine staining) and 10 showed afb culture positivity (growth in lj media).

The sensitivity of zn staining against afb culture was 77.8%

The sensitivity of gene xpert versus afb culture was 90%, specificity was 81%, ppv was 36% and npv was 98%.

Two patient samples showed atypical mycobacteria in afb culture.

CONCLUSION:

Gene expert & afb smear microscopy share almost same specificity but sensitivity of gene expert is much higher than afb smear microscopy in respiratory samples. Although culture is considered as a gold standard method but it takes days to come positive & simultaneous detection of rifampicin resistance is not possible with it. On the other side, gene expert can be a useful diagnostic method in patients of suspected pulmonary tuberculosis either afb smear negative or positive due to its rapidity & simultaneous detection of rifampicin resistance especially benificial in patient with mdr & hiv associated tuberculosis. Cost effectiveness of gene expert in developing countries like India with high prevalence of tuberculosis need to be done.

 

  • Diagnosis of Infectious Diseases | Bacterial vaginosis | Bacteriology in Public Health
Speaker
Biography:

Alan Kleinman, (MD, doctor of medicine and PhD, doctor of Mechanical Engineering, licensed in both fields) is a primary care physician. Before his interest in medicine, he worked in aerospace engineering on the Space Shuttle and taught mechanical engineering  at California State University Los Angeles. He got his BS, MS and PhD degrees in Mechanical Engineering at the University of California, Santa Barbara, BS in Advanced Biological Science from Touro College, New York, and the MD degree from the American University of the Caribbean.  Drug-resistance had been an increasing problem in his medical practice. He started research on this problem which led to the publication of three papers on drug-resistance, "The basic science and mathematics of random mutation and natural selection", "Random Recombination and evolution of drug resistance", and "The Mathematics of Random Mutation and Natural Selection for Multiple Simultaneous Selection Pressures" published in the Journal "Statistics in Medicine".

Abstract:

Statement of the Problem: Antimicrobial drug resistance has been and continues to be a problem in the treatment of infectious diseases. Any strategy to alleviate this problem needs to be based on a good understanding of how this process occurs. This process of drug resistance occurs by a process of random mutation and natural selection. Methodology & Theoretical Orientation: Random mutation and natural selection is a stochastic process (mutations) intertwined with an adaptive process (natural selection) which changes the number and frequencies of variant in populations. Using the principles of probability theory, the physics and mathematics of the random mutation and natural selection phenomenon is explained. Findings: Random mutation and natural selection operates in a cycle of beneficial mutation followed by amplification (increase in number) of that mutation in order to improve the probability of the next beneficial mutation to occur. Conclusion & Significance: The key to preventing drug resistant infections is by disrupting this cycle of beneficial mutation followed by amplification of that mutation cycle. This is done by forcing the bacterial population to take a more complex evolutionary trajectory by using multiple drugs which target different metabolic pathways.

 

Speaker
Biography:

Amsalu Bekele Binegdie is an Associate professor   & Consultant Pulmonologist at Division of Pulmonary & Critical Care Medicine, Department of Internal Medicine, Addis Ababa University, Ethiopia. His Research Interest is on Tuberculosis and Interaction between TB and chronic lung diseases. He publish several articles on reputable journals on different topics.

 

Abstract:

Introduction:  Daily adjunctive therapy with vitamin D3 and phenylbutyrate supports clinical recovery from pulmonary tuberculosis: Objective. Immunotherapy using vitamin D (vitD3) and phenylbutyrate (PBA) may support standard drug regimens used to treat infectious diseases. We investigated if vitD3+PBA enhanced clinical recovery from pulmonary tuberculosis (TB). Methods. A randomized controlled trial was conducted in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. Patients with smear-positive or smear-negative TB received daily oral supplementation with 5000 IU vitD3 and 29500 mg PBA or placebo for 16 weeks, together with 6-month chemotherapy. Primary end-point: reduction of a clinical composite TB score at week 8 compared with baseline using modified intention to-treat (mITT,n=348) and per-protocol (n=296) analyses. Secondary end-points: primary and modified TB scores (week 0, 4, 8, 16, 24), sputum conversion, radiological findings and plasma 25(OH)D3 concentrations. Results. Most subjects had low baseline plasma 25 (OH)D3 levels that increased gradually in the vitD3+PBA group compared with placebo (P<0.0001) from week 0 to 16 (mean 34.7 vs. 127.4 nmol L1). In the adjusted mITT analysis, the primary TB score was significantly reduced in the intervention group at week 8 (0.52, 95% CI0.93,0.10;P=0.015) while the modified TB score was reduced at week 8 (0.58, 95% CI1.02,0.14;P=0.01) and 16 (0.34, 95% CI0.64,0.03; P=0.03). VitD3+PBA had no effect on longitudinal sputum-smear conversion (P=0.98).Clinical adverse events were more common in the placebo group (24.3%) compared with the vitD3+PBA group (12.6%). Conclusion. Daily supplementation with vitD3+PBA may ameliorate clinical TB symptoms and disease specific complications, while the intervention had no effect on bacterial clearance in sputum.

 

Speaker
Biography:

Gopal Nath as a pioneer of Bacteriophage Therapy research in India, he has demonstrated that MDR/PDR bacteria can be treated by this alternative approach. He has conducted human trials on role of bacteriophages in wound healing. He has organized the “International Conference on Bacteriophages in River Ganga” and also founded the “Bacteriophage Society of India”. For the first time, he and his collaborators at NKI, Netherland established that Salmonella Typhi infection induces malignant transformations. He has published articles in journals like Lancet, Cell and Journal of Bacteriology. He had been at the editorial board of World J Gastroenterology. He has been one of the Judges of prestigious International King Faisal award in 2015. His efforts in bacteriophage therapy has led to visible transformation in the treatment of infectious diseases.

Abstract:

Phage therapy has the potential to be one of the alternatives / complements to antimicrobials. In the past, this approach was not found satisfactory because it was used empirically and with poorly characterized phages. In addition, the clinical applications often stuck in various regulatory circles. Therefore, well characterized bacteriophages using Good Manufacturing Practices (GMP) are required for scientific and medicolegal reasons. S. aureus is the commonest (72%) etiological agent implicated in osteomyelitis a clinical condition notoriously known for its chronicity due to poor vascular perfusion, variation in tissue pH and oxidative microenvironment apart from presence of biofilm and sequestrum. We have developed and treated for acute and chronic osteomyelitis in rabbit by using bacteriophage cocktail. Twenty rabbits were included in the study. They were divided into control A (n=4), control B (n=4) and experimental group (n=12). Osteomyelitis was created in all the rabbits. No treatment was given to control A group rabbits. Experimental group rabbits were treated with 4 doses of cocktail of five virulent bacteriophages at the interval of 48 h in the 3rd week of infection. Control B group rabbits were also given 4 dose of phage cocktail in 6th week. Comparison between three groups was done on the basis of observation of clinical, radiological, microbiological, and histopathological examination.

Total duration for observation was 7 weeks. Experimental group rabbits recovered well from the illness in the next two weeks of the therapy. Appetite and activity of the rabbits improved, local oedema, erythema and induration subsided. There were minimal changes associated with osteomyelitis in X-ray and histopathology also showed no signs of infection with new bone formation. Control B group rabbits also recovered well from infection. Local bacteriophage therapy is very effective treatment option for chronic osteomyelitis caused even by MDR S. aureus.

 

Speaker
Biography:

Abstract:

Foot and Mouth Disease (FMD) Virus is a contagious animal disease that causes irreparable damage to the economy of a country, including Iran where the disease is native in that. Among the ways to combat against FMD is vaccination and slaughter. Because of the specific situation of Iran, it is not possible to kill infected animals. Therefore, the most important way to fight the disease is to vaccinate. The methods used to evaluate the safety and determine the titer of antibody in a serum are mainly SNT and ELISA. In this research, designing an indirect ELISA test based on coating of complete particle of viral 140S particle makes it possible to determine antibody and following that determining serotype and viral type without need for time-consuming and complex molecular tasks, including gene expression. In addition, in the event of a new epidemic, a new epidemic condition can be detected by using serum antibody method.

However, coating complete viral particle leads us to need virus purification as well as the anti-immunoglobulin conjugate antibody testing of the same animal. In this study, SNT test was used as a Gold Test to determine the serum antibody level and comparing its results with indirect ELISA method to determine the sensitivity and specificity of the indirect ELISA test for measuring the anti-virus antibody rate of type (A2013&O2010) FMD through ROC analysis with 100% sensitivity and the specificity of 90% sensitivity using routine formulas with 100 % sensitivity and specificity of 82%.

In this study, considering Cut off OD = 0.3, there was a significant difference between the vaccinated animals and the unvaccinated animals in terms of antibody level against the A2013and O2010 type. This indicates the correctness of the test and the accurate and proportional antibody detection against the under study viral types of FMD.

 

  • Instrumental Analysis On Bacteria | Immunology | Sexually Transmitted Diseases and Infections
Speaker
Biography:

Abstract:

Background: Tuberculosis (TB) is the single most important cause of death from an infectious disease in Zimbabwe, whose eradication is dependent on the identification of all infected patients and their subsequent commencement on treatment. Diagnosed patients who do not initiate treatment facilitate onward transmission of the infection. This study quantified and assessed risk factors for loss to follow up (LTFU) and delays before treatment initiation among bacteriologically confirmed pulmonary TB patients.

Methods: A cohort study was conducted using routinely collected programme data from Bulawayo city, Zimbabwe. Diagnosed patients were identified from the laboratory register for 2012-2016, tracked for treatment initiation in the City’s TB registers and missing entries ascertained their outcomes in presumptive TB registers at respective clinics. We defined pre-treatment LTFU as diagnosed patients who did not initiate treatment within 90 days and pre-treatment deaths. Multivariable analysis was used to identify risk factors for pre-treatment LTFU and delays.

Results: Out of 2,443 identified records, one in five patients (20.8%,n=508) were lost to follow-up, including pre-treatment deaths (10.3%). Above 65 year olds (a RR=2.71,95%CI;2.12,3.47), male gender (aRR=1.21,95%CI;1.04,1.41), HIV positivity (aRR=1.26,95%CI;1.02,1.56) or Unknown HIV status (aRR=4.78,95%CI; 3.80,6.00) were independent risk factors for pre-treatment LTFU. Delay between testing and dispatch of results by ≥ 3 days (aRR=1.42, 95%CI;1.09,1.85), was an independent risk factors for pre-treatnment death in addition to the above. Among registered patients, (n=1,935), the mean (SD) delay from diagnosis to treatment initiation was 29.1 (21.6) days. Independent risk factors for treatment delay were new TB type (β=13.5,95%CI;11.5,15.4) and the delay decreased between 2013 (β=-8.8,95%CI;-11.5,-6.1) and 2016 (β=-18.6, 95%CI;-21.7,-15.6).

Conclusions: High loss to follow-up, deaths and delay of TB treatment initiation observed in this study is cause for concern. Enhancing active case finding, patient tracking from diagnosis to treatment initiation and point of care diagnosis were mitigatory strategies identified for risk factors for pre-treatment LTFU/death and delay.  

Speaker
Biography:

A practicing physician in the field of healthcare in the state of Kerala in India for the last30 years and very much interested in basic research. My interest is spread across the fever , inflammation and  back pain,. I am a writer. I already printed and published nine books in these subjects. I wrote hundreds of articles in various magazines.

 

Abstract:

According to the facts of physics, if temperature increases, thermal expansion of an object is positive it will expand and with decrease of temperature it will shrink. Pressure will increase due to increase of temperature.

On the contrary, during fever we can see blood vessels and skin are shrunk, pressure decreases, body shivers,   sleep increases, motion decreases, inflammation increases,   body pain increases, blood circulation decreases, dislike cold substances etc...

In fever, the firing rate of Warm sensitive neurons decreases, and the firing rate of Cold sensitive neurons increases.

At the same time if we apply hotness from outside by thermal bag or if we drink hot water, our body acts according to the Facts of Physics- increase of temperature  pressure will also increase,  expands blood vessels and skin, body sweats, motion will increase ,  inflammation will decrease , body pain will decrease, blood circulation will increase,  like cold substances etc..

During fever, why our body acts against Facts of Physics? When disease increases, pressure and temperature will decrease. Blood circulation will decrease due to decrease of pressure. If the essential temperature of the  body is going out, essential temperature and  pressure will further decrease. This will further endanger the life or action of organ.

When  disease  increase, it is the sensible and discreet action of brain  that tends to act against facts of physics  to sustain life or protect organ .There is no  way other than this for a sensible and discreet  brain to protect the  life or organ.

We will get a clear answer if we find out the purpose of fever,  sensible and discreet action of brain . No medical books clarify this. During fever, if the temperature of fever is not a surplus temperature or if it is not suppose to be eliminated from the body, the shrinking of skin and blood vessels, shivering of body, dislike towards cold substances etc are a protective covering of the body to increase blood circulation to important organs of the body it is against the facts of physics.

Day 2 :

Keynote Forum

Ramesh Gupta

Nagaland University India

Keynote: A New class of Antimicrobials; Aganocides-A New hope to Antibiotic Resistance and beyond

Time : 10:00-10:40 AM

Biography:

Ramesh Gupta is Pro Vice Chancellor, & Professor of chemistry at Nagaland University India. At a age of 23 he received, Doctorate in Chemistry from Lucknow University, India, on Drug Development. Dr. Ramesh Gupta is a Medicinal & Bioorganic Chemist and has worked for several years as visiting professor/Scientist in various Medical schools; Louis pasture University France, University of Arizona USA, Osaka University & Nagoya University Japan, Kyung Hee University, Korea advance institute of science and technology (KAIST) Korea, Ben-Gurion University Israel, Linkoping University Sweden, University of Mons Belgium, University of Western Australia, Sydney ,University of Bergen ,Norway  and some others. Prof Guptas’ research focuses on the Natural & Synthetic Drug Development, role of sulfur amino acids in health care, functional food, nutraceuticals and environmental Biotechnology & gender issues.

Abstract:

The development of antibiotic has created a new world for antimicrobial therapy, but the current rise of antibiotic resistant ‘super bugs’ has put a big question mark on anti microbial research? and compelled to re-look, re-examine the longstanding approaches not only for prevention but also strategies for treatments. There is an urgent need to develop non-antibiotic antimicrobial agents which must have potential to reduce dependence on antibiotics and provide a new front line of defense as well as effective treatment to a wide spectrum of infectious diseases. To hold such views together a new class of compounds have been identified as “Aganocides” which are non-antibiotic in nature, these novel pharmaceuticals has been develop based on molecules  involvement in  host defense and present with in white blood cells and to kill captured microorganisms. N-Halo moiety is the pharmacophore of Aganocides group. Currently perhaps there are no literature records of resistance to this class of molecules N –halo moiety comprises of chloro, bromo and iodo constituents.

Aganocides have potential to replace antibiotics and antiseptics as first order therapy against bacteria, viruses and other pathogens in topical application. In general, antibiotics besides killing bacteria and viruses also damage or destroy human cells. The other line of antiseptic like iodine and alcohol containing solutions has only preventive role and are restricted in their use for infections on tissue surfaces and cavities. however Aganocides are much more effective than these agents and 400-500 times less toxic to animal tissues thus providing higher therapeutic index (the ratio of effective dose to toxic dose) translates directly to patient benefit subsequently higher or similar microbial kill rates. In general Aganocides kill on contact all bacteria, viruses, fungi and protozoa more rapidly in minutes taking very less time as antibiotics takes.

On these lines N-Chloro taurine found in white blood cells has been recognized for treating infectious conjunctivitis, as a natural antiseptic as well as a novel topical antimicrobial agent. The late studies further introduce many others like N-bromo taurine, N, N dichloro taurine and many more.

The conventional therapies for treatment of intra and extra cellular diseases has in existence for many years but several noticeable complication and complexity compelled to update the current strategies and to cope the new emerging challenges of this new millennium the answer lies in new era of Nanotechnology which is perhaps one of the most effective gift of science to mankind. The unique physical and chemical properties of nano particles, particularly their small size and high surface to volume ratio allow this technology to surpass barriers and to gain assess easily to bio-molecules and also to biological systems .In principle manipulation of nano size particles is possible and its size, shape and chemical parameters can be altered in order to facilitate molecular interaction more effectively such development may lead to design engineered vehicles to carry various therapeutic or diagnostic agents which may be potentially useful  for medical application including targeted drug delivery, gene therapy ,cell labeling as well as development of new drug/pharmaceutical/medicine ,and such  agents development through this new technology are designated with new term nano drug/Nano pharmaceuticals/Nano medicine..There are number of taurine containing nano drugs/medicine for immune-modulator to energy provider as well for human skin care.

While Aganocides may provide an ideal therapy for surfaces and cavities throughout the body and could also participate in reducing the contact time, common pathogens have with antibiotics, thus they provide less chance for bacteria to develop resistance, can reverse antibiotics for effectively treating systemic infections their by potentiating their ability to save life with more efficiently. If these Aganocides can join “Umbrella of Nano Technology” perhaps it may constitute much desired and need of hour “our dream antimicrobial agents”.

 

  • Clinical Bacteriology | Medical Bacteriology and Immunology | Antibiotics
Speaker
Biography:

Djassinra Tormal,  received Ph.D in sciences of enviromment from university Ibn Tofail in 2016. After completion of my degree, I was appointed as a faculty fellow in the Department of Health and enviromment at the University of Ibn Tofail. I served as the Head of Study of antibacterial and antifugal activities of two medecinal plants growing wild in the Gharb region (Chenopodium ambrosiodes l and Rosmarinus officinalis l from 2014-2016. My interests are focused on the use of microbiology to study the antibacterial and antioxidant effect of medicinal plant on Antibiotic Resistant Strains in 2016. Chemistry agro resources, polymers and process engineering.

Abstract:

In this study, the behavior of Xanthomonas fragariae, angular leaf spot of strawberry agent, was followed in the AB medium, enriched with nitrogen, phosphorus or with potassium, and in the soil of the Mamora forest with 14% to 28% of humidity in function of these fertilizer elements. The obtained results have shown that Na2HPO4 and NH4Cl, used, 0.01 and 0.05 mol/l, respectively as a phosphorus and nitrogen source, have a significant effect on the survival of Xanthomonas fragariae. By contrast, KCl, used as a source of Potassium, has no significant effect on the number of culturable cells.

The three sources used NPK, 14% and 28% showed a great influence on the number of culturable cells of Xanthomonas fragariae, either increasing or decreasing. Potassium, at 28 to 14% of humidity, inhibited the rate growth of Xanthomonas, while the phosphorus and nitrogen stimulated its growth, greater than 28% of humidity than 14%. Similarly the bacterial growth was not affected during the incorporation of NPK at different concentrations in the soil of Mamora.

 

Speaker
Biography:

Bijayata Shrestha has completed her Masters at the age of 28 years from Tribhuwan University and Bachelors from Rajiv Gandhi University of Health Science. She is the incharge of Pathology department of HAMS Hospital. 

Abstract:

Background: Enteric fever is one of the most common diseases encountered worldwide and is endemic in Nepal. This study was conducted to access antibiotic susceptibility pattern of Salmonella isolates from culture positive cases of enteric fever.

Methods: Altogether 505 blood samples were collected from patients clinically suspected of enteric fever attending HAMS Hospital. All blood samples were cultured by BACTEC method and sub cultured in blood agar and MacConkey agar plates. All isolates were identified by colony characteristics, biochemical tests and serotyping methods. Antibiotic susceptibility test was performed by modified Kirby Bauer disc diffusion method interpreted with CLSI guideline.

Result: Isolation rate of Salmonella species was 3.6%. Among 18 Salmonella isolates, 10 were S. typhi, 8 were S. paratyphi A. The prevalence rate of infection was high among the age group 11-20 years (50%) and among the male patients. However, there was no significant association of enteric fever with gender of patients (p=2.47). All 18 isolates were sensitive to Amoxycillin, Azithromycin, Ceftriaxone and Chloramphenicol, Ciprofloxacin and Ofloxacin. Majority of isolates were sensitive to Cefixime (94.4%), Cotrimoxazole (94.4%) and Cephotaxime (90%). There were no any MDR isolates. Higher percentage of isolates was resistant to Nalidixic acid (87.5%).

Conclusion: The decreased susceptibility to Fluroquinolones of S. typhi and S. Paratyphi A can be correlated with resistance to Nalidixic acid. Commonly used third generation Cephalosporins and rolled back first line drugs be the choice in case of NARS isolates.

 

  • Clinical Infectious Diseases |Food Poisoning Bacteria | Bacterial Infectious Diseases
Speaker
Biography:

Abstract:

Background: Rapid and accurate diagnosis of bacterial bloodstream infection is strategic for the survival of the patient.

Methods: We carried out a cross sectional study on hospitalised patients suspected of bloodstream infections from May to June 2017 in the Yaounde University Teaching Hospital. Blood blood culture were collected from 154 patients in four different units; neonatal unit (58), pediatric ward (56), surgical ward (22) and emergency ward (18).  We used the conventional classical gallery to identify the different positive culture/isolates then later using the Kirby-Bauer disc diffusion method for antimicrobial susceptibility testing.

Results: Out of the 154 patients enrolled, 45(29.22%) were positive for blood culture. 37 (82.22%) of these bloodstream infections were hospital acquired, with higher prevalence at neonatal unit 19/45 (42.22%). We identified more Gram positive cocci in clusters 30(66.67%), coagulase negative Staphylococcus 18(40%), and Staphylococcus aureus 12(26.67%) than Gram negative bacilli 15(33.33%); Klebsiella pneumonia 7(15.56%), Enterobacter spp. 6(13.33%), Escherichia coli 1(2.22%) and Citrobacter spp. 1(2.22%). The Staphylococci spp. were resistant to cefoxitine 53.33%, amoxicillin (50%), tobramycine (33.33%), gentamycin (26.67%), vancomycin (23.33%), erythromycin (20%), clindamycine (20%), and lincomycine (20%), amox + clav (16.67%). No D-zone observe for the resistant induced to clindamycin by erythromycin. Our study registered 53.33% MRSA and 33.33% VRSA and low resistance to aminoglycosides. Gram negative bacilli-enterobacteriaceae were more commonly resistant to the fluoroquinolones (ofloxacine (53.33%), ciprofloxacine (40%), nalidixic acid (33.33%)), the beta lactamines (Cefotaxime (40%), amox + clav (33.33%), cefuroxime (26.67%) and imipenem (6.67%)) and the aminoglycosides (gentamicine 20%).

Conclusion: The study therefore revealed that bloodstream infection was hospital acquired, and caused by Gram positive bacteria. Neonatal unit was mostly implicated. MRSA remain a big problem in our context. No D-zone observed and emergence of VRSA. Enterobacteriaceae produced increased resistant rate to fluroquinolones and beta lactamines (beta lactamases producing strains) and one registered strain producing carbapenemases.  

Speaker
Biography:

Zandile P Mahlangu is a microbiologist with research interests in antimicrobial drug resistance and antimicrobial drug discovery. She is currently conducting her PhD research project, which is focused on the optimization and validation of a high-throughput drug screening platform for the identification of new therapeutic compounds against carbapenemase-producing Klebsiella pneumoniae. The project is exploring possible ways of accelerating antimicrobial drug discovery efforts against the Klebsiella pneumoniae.

 

 

Abstract:

Carbapenem-resistant K. pneumoniae is an emerging multidrug-resistant Gram-negative bacterium causing infections associated with significant morbidity and mortality worldwide. K. pneumoniae has adapted and selected for carbapenemases, which are versatile β-lactamase enzymes capable of hydrolyzing carbapenems: a class of broad-spectrum antibiotics reserved for the treatment of infections caused by multidrug resistant pathogens. This has necessitated the use of colistin and tigecycline as last resort therapeutic option for treating infections caused by the pathogen. However, it has developed resistance against these antibiotics, thus further complicating treatment, due to limited antibiotic options. Recently, the World Health Organization (WHO) identified the carbapenem-resistant K. pneumoniae as the most important multidrug-resistant bacteria at the global level, for which there is an urgent need for new treatments.

To accelerate and minimize the cost involved in drug discovery efforts, a cell-based high-content/high-throughput reverse transfection microarray screening platform will be employed to screen hundreds of compounds against carbapenem-resistant K. pneumoniae. To achieve this, a cell-based assay, mimicking infection in human cells will be validated in a 96-well plate format. The validated assay will be transposed onto a high-density microarray plate comprising of chemically encapsulated compounds for screening. Using an automated fluorescent imaging system, the activity of compounds against fluorescently labeled bacterial strain will be measured and statistically quantified. The anticipated outcome of this study is the development of a highly efficient screen that can simultaneously determine efficacy, cytotoxicity, specificity, and predict clinical response of compounds in biologically relevant cell-lines while enabling the rapid identification of potential drug candidates for carbapenem-resistant K. pneumoniae.

  • Clinical Bacteriology | Medical Bacteriology and Immunology